The history of cricket
Cricket is a truly English game that originated in the XIII century. It is in English documents that the word “cricket”first occurs. Its name goes back to the Saxon word for “stick”. Presumably, from the word “cric” – so called shepherd’s stick, which was used to lock the gates of the pasture. Probably, the game of ball with the help of this curved at the end of the stick and amused the shepherds while looking after the flocks.
Presumably, cricket originated from such ancient games as” stick and ball”,” bat and ball “and”trap and ball”.
The game originated in the South-East of great Britain, on pastures for sheep — there was a low grass on which it was convenient to roll the ball (it was made of wool or rags). They protected the gate with a shepherd’s stick.
The first information about cricket dates back to 1300: a report on the expenses of the Royal court mentions a sum of 100 shillings and 6 pounds spent on “creeg” and other sports by Prince Edward.
If in the documents of the 15th century there are occasional mentions of boys playing “crackett”, in the 16th century, evidence of a passion for this game is more frequent. It is said that in his youth, Oliver Cromwell was engaged in cricket.
The heyday of this game was at the end of the 18th century. The beginning of this was the team of the English village of Hambledon, which founded a Cricket club in 1750. In 1787, the “Marie-LeBon Cricket club” (MCC) was established, which developed new rules a year later.
In 1900, cricket was even included in the list of Olympic games, but for many reasons — the unpopularity of this sport in many countries, the lack of competition — cricket was excluded.
The first cricket world Cup, held in 1912, failed. It was not possible to identify the winner among the three participants (Australia, England and South Africa) due to bad weather. The second world Cup was held only in 1975. Teams from England, Australia, New Zealand, the West Indies, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and East Africa played their first world Cup. Since then, this competition has been held every four years.
The English are incredibly sensitive to cricket, not recognizing that this game could have been born in some other country. Just as baseball is played everywhere in the United States, so in England the rules of cricket are known from the cradle.
In addition to England, cricket is very common in India and Australia.
In Russia, however, cricket has not yet taken root, although it is very similar to the old Russian game of bast shoes.
Basic rules of the game of cricket
The first set of rules for cricket is the “Code of 1744”, which specifies the official dimensions of various cricket venues.
The rules of the game of cricket at first glance are not particularly difficult, but if you are professionally engaged in this sport, you will have to study a weighty volume with all the nuances of the game.
The game is played between two teams of 11 players each. The goal of the game is to earn more points (runs) than the opposing team. A match consists of one or more parts, each of which is called an innings. In each inning, one team bats and the other pitches once.
Cricket is usually played on grass. The field for playing cricket is an oval ground (cricket field), oval in size 80 by 60-70 meters, inside which there is an earthen strip 20.12 meters long (22 yards). At each end of the strip of land in the field are stuck three columns, on top of which are placed two small wooden crossbars. (height 67.5 cm, width 20 cm).
This construction is called a wicket.
At each wicket with bats in hand are the players of the batting team. A player of the batting team, called a bowler, throws the ball, being near one of the wickets, towards the other, trying to get into the wicket.
The batsman standing next to the wicket tries to protect it by using the bat.
If the batter hits the ball, he can run to the opposite wicket. A player standing at the other wicket runs to meet him, trying to take the batter’s place. Each such run brings a point to the batting team. The batting team tries to catch the ball and return it to one of the wickets. If the ball hits the wicket at the moment when at least one of the running players was between the wickets (behind the line), then this running player leaves the game, and another player of the batting team takes his place. The batter is also out of the game if he failed to protect his wicket from the ball while serving, or the ball was caught by the batter after the batter hit the ball or touched the ball with the bat before the ball hit the ground.
When 10 players of the batting team are out of the game, the inning ends and the teams switch places. If both teams pitched once, the inning ends. A multi-day match usually consists of one or two innings (usually 5 days are allocated for two innings). The team that scores more runs at the end of the match is declared the winner. If the time allotted for a match has run out before it has finished, then a draw is declared.
Each team consists of 11 players. A well-balanced team will have 4-5 bowlers (players who specialize in innings) and 5-6 batsmen (batsman) who specialize in batting. The most valuable players are versatile — those who serve well and hit well. Each team has one special player called the “wicket-keeper”. His task is to catch a pitched ball passed by the batter, and try to hit the wicket with the ball if the batter was behind the line.